Some words (adverbs or prepositional phrases used as adverbs) are used to connect ideas between one sentence and a previous sentence or sentences (as in We could go skiing to Switzerland at Christmas. Alternatively, we could just stay in Chișinău.). Others (conjunctions or prepositions) are used to connect ideas within a single sentence (as in Minneapolis is a large industrial center, but it has many cultural attractions. While I was waiting, I read a magazine.). Many transitional words that are used to connect ideas between sentences can also connect two clauses in one sentence (as in You could fly via Singapore; however, this isn't the only way. I did not dislike the play; on the contrary, I enjoyed it immensely).


comparing, contrasting, and conceding (i.e. admitting something that may be surprising) however, nevertheless (in spite of...), on the one hand... on the other hand, on the contrary, although, though, alternatively, instead, after all (in spite of...), in any case, in contrast (to), by contrast, otherwise, even so (in spite of that), of course, in spite of, despite, it is true that... although, though, while, yet, but, whereas, even though, when
introducing examples, causes, reasons, purposes, and results for example, for instance, therefore, consequently, as a result, hence (for this reason), thus ( as a result), as a consequence of..., in consequence of... (formal), so, after all (to explain something or give a reason) because, for, since, as, so, in order to, so that, such as
adding ideas in addition to..., furthermore, too, as well, likewise (in a similar way), similarly, moreover, what's more, also, besides, in fact, first..., second..., third... and, as well as, both... and, not only... but also
time: one event at the same time as another meanwhile (informal - meantime), at the same time, at that time while, as, when, whenever
time: one event before or after another soon, then, afterwards, after / before that, thereafter, finally, subsequently (afterwards), eventually, at last, in the end after, before, as soon as, since

However is used to introduce a statement that contrasts with sth that has just been said:

He was feeling bad. He went to work, however, and tried to concentrate.
We thought the figures were correct. However, we have now discovered some errors.
There may, however, be other reasons that we don't know about.
We have not yet won; however, we should keep trying.
The first part was easy; the second, however, took hours.

Nevertheless - in spite of what has just been said or referred to; however; nonetheless (slightly formal); notwithstanding (formal):

There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law. Nevertheless, it is important that we try.
Our defeat was expected but it is disappointing nevertheless.
The old system had its flaws, but nevertheless it was preferable to the new one.
I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting nevertheless.
The two rivals were nevertheless united by the freemasonry of the acting profession.

Although / even though / though are used to show contrast between two clauses or two sentences. Though is used more in spoken English than in written. You can use although / even though / though at the beginning of a sentence or clause that has a verb.

Although everyone played well, we lost the game.
She walked home by herself, although she knew that it was dangerous.
Even though he left school at 16, he still managed to become a famous politician.
I like red and orange together, though lots of people think they clash.
Her book is still a standard text in archaeology, even though it was written more than twenty years ago.

Although and though can also mean but, like however, which is more formal.

Everyone played well, although we still lost the game.
Everyone played well. We still lost the game, though.
He's rather shy, although he's not as bad as he used to be.
She'll be coming tonight, although I don't know exactly when.
They're coming next week, though I don't know which day.

Otherwise is used to state what the result would be if sth did not happen or if the situation were different:

My parents lent me some money. Otherwise, I couldn't have afforded the trip.
Button up your overcoat, otherwise you'll catch cold.
Shut the window, otherwise it'll get too cold in here.
I'd better write it down, otherwise I'll forget it.
Andrei enjoys teaching English. He wouldn't prepare students for the TOEFL iBT otherwise.

Instead - in the place of sb/sth:

The city has its pleasures, but she wished instead for the quiet of country life.
He didn't reply. Instead, he turned on his heel and left the room.
She said nothing, preferring instead to save her comments until later.
There's no coffee - would you like a cup of tea instead?
Not to worry - perhaps you'll be able to come next week instead.

Even so - in spite of that; despite what has just been said:

There are a lot of spelling mistakes in your essay; even so, it's quite a good piece of writing.
This website doesn't contain a lot of information about English pronunciation. Even so, you may find yourself spending a lot of time exploring it.
I had a terrible headache, but even so I went to the concert.
An immediate interest cut might give a small boost to the economy. Even so, any recovery is likely to be very slow.

Hence - (formal) as an inference from this fact; for this reason; therefore:

That old Moldovan rug is handmade and hence expensive.
They grew up in the Sudan; hence their interest in Nubian art.
Peter's leaving at the end of this week - hence his anxiety to get his work finished.
The eggs were very fresh and hence satisfactory.
They grew up at the White House; hence their lack of interest in politics.

Thus - as a result of sth just mentioned; therefore; hence; in this manner:

He is the eldest son of the emperor and thus the heir to the throne.
This facility allows the user to input text in various forms onto the screen and thus create a true newspaper page.
They planned to reduce staff and thus to cut costs.
The universities have expanded, thus allowing many more people the chance of higher education.
We do not own the building. Thus, it would be impossible for us to make any major changes to it.

After all - (1) in spite of what has been said or expected or (2) used when you are explaining sth, or giving a reason:

She decided to go to the U.S. after all!
He should have paid for our dinner. He suggested that we go to that bar after all.
I wondered whether there might, after all, be some truth in the old chestnut that one's school days are the happiest of one's life.
I'm sorry to disappoint you, but I'm afraid I can't come after all.

Thereafter - (formal) (1) after the time or event mentioned; afterward or (2) from a specified time onward; from then on:

Andrei visited the Hawaiian Islands in July 2008 and decided to spend some time in Alaska soon thereafter.
She married at 19 and gave birth to her first child shortly thereafter.
He left the priesthood in 2004 and settled in the Washington area shortly thereafter.
We shape our buildings: thereafter they shape us.
The final section provides that any work produced for the company is thereafter owned by the company.

Likewise - (formal) the same; in a similar way; also:

He voted for the change and he expected many others to do likewise.
You forgot to mention that her parents were likewise going to attend the ceremony.
Just water these plants twice a week, and likewise the ones in the bedroom.
Some have little power to do good, and have likewise little strength to resist evil.
I can hardly believe that his second marriage was likewise unhappy.

Moreover is used to introduce some new information that adds to or supports what you have said previously. Moreover is very formal and not common in spoken English. When you speak, use besides / also / in addition instead.

The cellar was dark and forbidding; moreover, I knew a family of mice had nested there.
The whole report is badly written. Moreover, it's inaccurate.
The rent is reasonable and, moreover, the location is perfect.
The source of the information is irrelevant. Moreover, the information need not be confidential.
My girlfriend invited me to go to Boston with her. Moreover, she promised to pay for all expenses.

Besides - in addition to sb/sth; apart from sb/sth; used for making an extra comment that adds to what you have just said; in addition; also:

We have lots of things in common besides music.
I've got plenty of other things to do besides talking to you.
I don't really want to go. Besides, it's too late now.
I don't feel like cooking; besides, there's no food in the house.
She won't mind your being late - besides, it's hardly your fault.

Meanwhile - while sth else is happening; in the period of time between two times or two events; used to compare two aspects of a situation:

Bob spent fifteen months alone on his yacht. Ann, meanwhile, took care of the children on her own.
The doctor will see you again next week. Meanwhile, you must rest as much as possible.
Stress can be extremely damaging to your health. Exercise, meanwhile, can reduce its effects.
Carl is starting college in September. Meanwhile, he is traveling around Canada.
Cook the sauce over a medium heat until it thickens. Meanwhile start boiling the water for the pasta.

In the end - after a long period of time or series of events; finally; at last; eventually; ultimately:

Our politicians agree that this country is going through a lot of hardships at the moment but they promise that everything will be all right in the end.
He tried various jobs and in the end became an accountant.
We were thinking about going to Hawaii, but in the end we went to Oregon.
All her hard work paid off in the end, and she finally passed the exam.

Finally - after a long time, especially when there has been some difficulty or delay:

The performance finally started half an hour late.
Terra Nova was finally opened in October 2004.
I finally managed to get her attention.
Are you finally going to tell me why I'm here?
When they finally arrived it was well past midnight.

Also - (not used with negative verbs) in addition; too; as well. Also is more formal than too, and it usually comes before the main verb or after the verb be. In British English as well is used like too, but in American English it sounds formal or old-fashioned.

I went to New York last year, and I also spent some time in Washington.
We value herbs for their taste, but we forget that they also have medicinal properties.
Diet and exercise can influence a person's weight, but heredity is also a factor.
The situation has an added piquancy since the two men are also rivals in love.
The defendants are also accused of attempting to pervert the course of justice.